Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment: an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts
Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Sund R, et al.
Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Sund R, et al.
PI: Perry Hystad
Project number: R21ES031226
Project dates: 7/17/2020-6/30/2021
Olatunji BO, Christian C, Strachan E, Levinson CA.
In the follow-up survey, we asked participants to self-report the amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) they had in the past two week. We wondered if the amount of exercise people are doing during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with several mental health indicators.
Liechty A, Tsang S, Turkheimer E, Duncan GE.
We are happy to share that a manuscript using data from the affectionate communication study has been published. Within twin pairs, identical twins were more highly correlated for expressed and received affection than fraternal twins, suggesting genetic influences play a role in affection. Using an ACE model, which is used in twin studies to estimate the contribution of genetics and the environment to a given phenotype such as affection, the study authors determined that 45% of the variance in expressed affectionate communication is heritable (due to genetics), and 0% is explained by the common environment. This means that shared influences such as being raised by the same parents in the same households had no impact on expressed affection. Only 21% of the variance in received affection was heritable. Given that received affection largely depends on others, it is not surprising to see that heritability is lower for this trait. These findings suggest that greater attention should be given to communicative behaviors by considering genetic and biological influences, and not just environmental influences.
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In the follow-up survey, we were interested in whether the number of individuals in a household during lock-down/shelter-in-place has an effect on people’s mental health status. We were particularly curious about whether individuals with children are more worried during this unprecedented time.
Shelby Tarutis, MPH
Shelby Tarutis studied biochemistry and literature at The Evergreen State College (BS, 1976) and received her Master of Public Health in Health Services from the University of Washington (1996). She received a Certificate in Executive Development from the UW Foster School of Business (2018). She has experience with coordinating research studies, managing data collection and planning budgets for grant applications. For over 25 years, she obtained grant funding and coordinated village development projects in The Gambia, West Africa. In her spare time, she volunteers with Gambia Health Education Liaison Project, a locally based non-profit.
Elizabeth Blue, PhD
Dr. Blue studied Economics and Anthropology at Indiana University (BS, 2003), and Anthropology at the University of Utah (MS, 2005; Ph.D., 2008). Her graduate work focused on the principles of evolutionary and population genetics. She pursued training in statistical genetics as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington (2008). She joined the faculty at the University of Washington in the Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Genetics (2011). She has been the chair of the Young Investigators committee of the International Genetic Epidemiology Society since 2013, joined the Statistical Genetics Program faculty in 2014, and the Institute of Public Health Genomics faculty in 2015. Dr. Blue’s research focuses on identifying genetic variants influencing complex traits, such as Alzheimer Disease and autism spectrum disorder. Her recent work has delved into the complexities of Mendelian traits as well, including oculocutaneous albinism, familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and others.
Glen Duncan, PhD
Dr. Duncan’s academic training is in physical education (BS, 1992, East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania) and exercise physiology (MS, 1994, Ball State University; PhD, 1997, University of Tennessee). Following graduate school, he completed postdoctoral research training (1998-2002) and then joined the faculty at the University of Florida (2002-2003), both in the Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism. He joined the Core Faculty of the Nutritional Sciences Program, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington in July 2003. In June 2015, he accepted a position as Professor in the newly established Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, and Chair of the Nutrition and Exercise Physiology program at Washington State University – Health Sciences Spokane, where the Washington State Twin Registry is administratively housed. His major focus is related to macro-level influences (built environment, social environment, policies) on physical activity, nutrition, and chronic disease within an ecological framework.
Ally Avery, MS
Ms. Avery studied sociology at Western Washington University (BA, 2009) and received her Master of Science in Data Science from Northwestern University (2016). She has experience with all aspects of twin studies, including grant, budget, and protocol development, building and maintaining study databases, data collection, and data analysis.
Sinclair VG, Adams SM, Dietrich M.
This survey is being sent to parents of twins age 13 and younger. This survey will examine how the COVID-19 pandemic is impacting families.
The purpose of this survey study is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and corresponding social restrictions in place on the daily life and feelings of WSTR twin pairs. Given the widespread statewide social restrictions put in place, it is possible that people’s perceptions and normal interactions within their neighborhoods may have changed. We intend to utilize the survey data to investigate the extent to which safety perception and mood may have changed as a function of the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent changes in their social environment. Although we are unable to determine the initial “baseline” of these perceptions, the follow-up survey in May 2021 will provide insight as to how much these perceptions may have changed as the COVID-19 pandemic ends and social restrictions are lifted.
In light of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the corresponding social restrictions to society, we followed up with a sample of our participants to see how they are impacted by the recent events. We would like to thank the WSTR twins for their participation and continued support of the WSTR.
In our recent COVID-19 survey, we asked participants several questions about their exposure to the COVID-19 virus. Most participants reported not having been diagnosed with COVID-19, with very few participants reported having household and/or family members diagnosed with COVID-19. However, 42.69 participants reported knowing at least one friend (and/or classmate) who was diagnosed with COVID-19. More than a quarter (26.03) of the participants reported knowing at least one person from work (co-worker, client, and/or patient) who was diagnosed with COVID-19.
Floyd K, York C, Ray CD.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many social restrictions have been put in place in the hopes to slow down the spread of the virus. As a result, many of us have had to make changes in our daily lives accordingly. We examined whether self-perceived change in the amount of physical activity and sleep is associated with mental health.
We were interested in examining the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic affects mental health. Participants were asked to respond to a number of survey items designed to assess depression, stress, and anxiety.