Health and Wellbeing

Quasi-causal associations between chronotype and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms: A twin study

McCall CA, Turkheimer E, Tsang S, Avery A, Duncan GE, Watson NF. Objective The evening (“night owl”) chronotype is associated with greater severity and lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms compared to morning or intermediate chronotypes. This twin study investigated the gene-environment relationships between chronotype, recent PTSD symptoms, and lifetime intrusive symptoms. Methods […]

Sex differences in lifetime prevalence of low back pain: A multinational study of opposite-sex twin pairs

Calais-Ferreira L, Pozzobon D, Pinheiro MB, Blyth FM, Ordoñana JR, Duncan GE, Hopper JL, Ferreira PH, Ferreira ML. Background Low back pain (LBP) is more likely to occur in people with a family history of this condition, highlighting the importance of accounting for familial factors when studying the individual risk of LBP. We conducted a […]

Positive lifestyle behaviours and emotional health factors are associated with low back pain resilience

Roberts KE, Beckenkamp PR, Ferreira ML, Duncan GE, Calais-Ferreira L, Gatt JM, Ferreira P. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between lifestyle behaviours, emotional health factors, and low back pain (LBP) resilience. Methods This retrospective longitudinal study utilised 1,065 twins with a recent history of LBP from the Washington State Twin Registry. A lifestyle behaviour score […]

The pillars of health: influence of multiple lifestyle behaviors on body mass index and depressive symptoms in adult twins

Duncan GE, Avery AR, Tsang S, Watson NF, Williams BD, Turkheimer E. Background Guidelines promoting healthy lifestyles are cornerstones of chronic disease prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate independent and joint associations of five key health behaviors with health outcomes (body mass index (BMI kg/m2) and depressive symptoms) in adult […]

Central and Peripheral Symptoms in Network Analysis are Differentially Heritable A Twin Study of Anxious Misery

Olatunji BO, Christian C, Strachan E, Levinson CA. Background Evidence suggests that depression and anxiety disorders are genetically based. Although symptoms of these internalizing disorders tend to correlate, the degree to which the related symptoms are heritable is unclear. This overlap has been conceptualized as Anxious Misery and existing research examining similar constructs of negative […]

Associations between changes in resilient coping and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms

Sinclair VG, Adams SM, Dietrich M. The pervasive, damaging nature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presents enormous clinical challenges. Understanding the relationship between patients’ perceptions of PTSD symptoms and resilient coping strategies may prompt investigation of clinical interventions that improve adaptive, resilient coping skills. In this study, we examined whether changes in resilient coping were […]

Insomnia and posttraumatic stress symptoms: Evidence of shared etiology

Cox RC, Taylor S, Strachan E, Olatunji BO. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and insomnia are comorbid clinical conditions that are thought to result from genetic and environmental effects. Though studies have established the heritability of these disorders independently, no study to date has examined the genetic contributions to the relation between insomnia and PTSD symptoms […]

Cohort Profile: TWINS study of environment, lifestyle behaviours and health

Duncan GE, Avery A, Hurvitz PM, Moudon AV, Tsang S, Turkheimer E. The role of built and social environments in supporting healthy lifestyles has received increased attention over the past decade, as research and prevention paradigms have shifted from a focus on individual-level behaviour change to macro-level influences embedded within social-ecological models of health that […]

Sleep Duration and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Twin Study

McCall CA, Turkheimer E, Tsang S, Avery A, Duncan GE, Watson NF. Study Objectives Long and short sleep duration are associated with greater risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, it is unknown how genetic and environmental influences impact this relationship. Thus, we investigated the association between sleep duration and PTSD symptoms using twin […]

Probabilistic walking models using built environment and sociodemographic predictors

Moudon AV, Huang R, Stewart OT, Cohen-Cline H, Noonan C, Hurvitz PM, Duncan GE. Background Individual sociodemographic and home neighborhood built environment (BE) factors influence the probability of engaging in health-enhancing levels of walking or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods are needed to parsimoniously model the associations. Methods Participants included 2392 adults drawn from a […]

Heritability of Type 2 Diabetes in the Washington State Twin Registry

Avery AR, Duncan GE Approximately 12% of U.S. adults have type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diagnosed T2D is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors including age and lifestyle. In adults 45 years and older, the Discordant Twin (DISCOTWIN) consortium of twin registries from Europe and Australia showed a moderate-to-high contribution of genetic factors […]

A twin study of genetic influences on nephrolithiasis in women and men

Goldfarb DS, Avery AR, Beara-Lasic L, Duncan GE, Goldberg J. Background Nephrolithiasis is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previously we found a genetic component to stone disease using a sample of male twin pairs. We now report on the genetic contribution to stones in a sample of female and male […]

Examination of Cross-Sectional Associations of Neighborhood Deprivation and Alcohol Outlet Density With Hazardous Drinking Using a Twin Design

Rhew IC, Kosterman R, Duncan GE, Mair C. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and alcohol outlet density are associated with hazardous drinking using a co-twin design to control for confounding because of genetic and shared environmental factors. Method The study sample included cross-sectional data from 1,996 same-sex […]

Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts

Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Hopper JL, Busjahn A, Cozen W, Mack TM, Sumathipala A, Harris JR, Goldberg JH, Harden KP, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Turkheimer E, Kaprio J, et al. Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences […]

Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult body mass index by sex, age, time period, and region: an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts

Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Cozen W, Mack T, Sumathipala A, Christensen K, Busjahn A, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Goldberg JH, Hopper JL, Sung J, Turkheimer E, Kaprio J, et al. Background  Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. […]

Does the sex of one’s co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood? A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts

Bogl LH, Jelenkovic A, Christensen K, Cozen W, Mack TM, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Hopper JL, Silventoinen K, Kaprio J, et al. Background The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric […]

A Twin Study on Perceived Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Marriage

Beam CR, Dinescu D, Emery R, Turkheimer E. Marriage is associated with reductions in both perceived stress and depressive symptoms, two constructs found to be influenced by common genetic effects. A study of sibling twins was used to test whether marriage decreases the proportion of variance in depressive symptoms accounted for by genetic and environmental […]

Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

Jelenkovic A, Sumathipala A, Christensen K, Hopper JL, Cozen W, Mack TM, Sung J, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Harris JR, Goldberg JH, Kaprio J, Silventoinen K, et al. Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis […]

Is Marriage a Buzzkill? A Twin Study of Marital Status and Alcohol Consumption

Dinescu D, Turkheimer E, Beam CR, Horn EE, Duncan G, Emery RE. Married adults have consistently been found to drink less than their single or divorced counterparts. This correlation may not be causal, however, as people nonrandomly “select” into marriage and into alcohol use. The current study uses a sample of 2,425 same-sex twin pairs […]

Resilient Coping Moderates the Effect of Trauma Exposure on Depression

Sinclair VG, Wallston KA, Strachan E. Posttraumatic depression rates are increasing in the United States, and there is a great need to identify malleable factors that could moderate posttraumatic depression levels. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resilient coping moderates the effects of trauma exposure on depression, while controlling for neuroticism-an established […]