Using Smart City Technology to Make Healthcare Smarter

Cook DJ, Duncan G, Sprint G, Fritz R. Smart cities use information and communication technologies (ICT) to scale services include utilities and transportation to a growing population. In this article we discuss how smart city ICT can also improve healthcare effectiveness and lower healthcare cost for smart city residents. We survey current literature and introduce […]

Differential models of twin correlations in skew for body-mass index (BMI)

Tsang S, Duncan GE, Dinescu D, Turkheimer E. Background Body Mass Index (BMI), like most human phenotypes, is substantially heritable. However, BMI is not normally distributed; the skew appears to be structural, and increases as a function of age. Moreover, twin correlations for BMI commonly violate the assumptions of the most common variety of the […]

Associations between social capital and depression: A study of adult twins

Cohen-Cline H, Beresford SA, Barrington W, Matsueda R, Wakefield J, Duncan GE. Social capital is associated with depression independently of individual-level risk factors. We used a sample of 1586 same-sex twin pairs to test the association between seven measures of social capital and two related measures of neighborhood characteristics with depressive symptoms accounting for uncontrolled […]

Associations between neighbourhood characteristics and depression: a twin study

Cohen-Cline H, Beresford SAA, Barrington WE, Matsueda RL, Wakefield J, Duncan GE. Background Depression is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. Besides several known individual-level factors that contribute to depression, there is a growing recognition that neighbourhood environment can also profoundly affect mental health. This study assessed associations between three neighbourhood constructs-socioeconomic […]

FTO genotype impacts food intake and corticolimbic activation

Melhorn SJ, Askren MK, Chung WK, Kratz M, Bosch TA, Tyagi V, Webb MF, De Leon MRB, Grabowski TJ, Leibel RL, Schur EA. Background Variants in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene increase obesity risk. People with “high-risk” FTO genotypes exhibit preference for high-fat foods, reduced satiety responsiveness, and greater […]

Examination of Cross-Sectional Associations of Neighborhood Deprivation and Alcohol Outlet Density With Hazardous Drinking Using a Twin Design

Rhew IC, Kosterman R, Duncan GE, Mair C. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and alcohol outlet density are associated with hazardous drinking using a co-twin design to control for confounding because of genetic and shared environmental factors. Method The study sample included cross-sectional data from 1,996 same-sex […]

What Twin Studies Tell Us About Brain Responses to Food Cues

Schur E, Carnell S. Purpose of Review Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using visual food cues provides insight into brain regulation of appetite in humans. This review sought evidence for genetic determinants of these responses. Recent Findings Echoing behavioral studies of food cue responsiveness, twin study approaches detect significant inherited influences on brain response to […]

Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts

Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Hopper JL, Busjahn A, Cozen W, Mack TM, Sumathipala A, Harris JR, Goldberg JH, Harden KP, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Turkheimer E, Kaprio J, et al. Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences […]

Cross-sectional association between soda consumption and body mass index in a community-based sample of twins

Eney AE, Tsang S, Delaney JA, Turkheimer E, Duncan GE. Background Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, such as soda, have been shown to play an important role in weight gain. Although soda consumption has been associated with body mass index (BMI) in many studies, it has been difficult to ascertain a true causal relationship between soda […]

Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult body mass index by sex, age, time period, and region: an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts

Silventoinen K, Jelenkovic A, Cozen W, Mack T, Sumathipala A, Christensen K, Busjahn A, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Goldberg JH, Hopper JL, Sung J, Turkheimer E, Kaprio J, et al. Background  Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. […]

Trust is heritable, whereas distrust is not

Reimann M, Schilke O, Cook KS. Why do people distrust others in social exchange? To what degree, if at all, is distrust subject to genetic influences, and thus possibly heritable, and to what degree is it nurtured by families and immediate peers who encourage young people to be vigilant and suspicious of others? Answering these questions could provide fundamental clues […]

Genetic and Environment Influences on Sleep, Pain, and Depression Symptoms in a Community Sample of Twins

Gasperi M, Herbert M, Schur E, Buchwald D, Afari N. Objective We used quantitative genetic methods to evaluate whether sleep quality, pain, and depression symptoms share a common genetic diathesis, to estimate the genetic and environmental sources of covariance among these symptoms, and to test for possible causal relationships. Methods A community sample of 400 […]